Chapter 7 Estimation

  • TODO: Where we are going, estimating conditional means and distributions.
  • TODO: estimation = learning. “learning from data.” what are we learning about? often parameters.
  • TODO:
  • TODO:

7.1 Probability

  • TODO: See Appendix A
  • TODO: In R, d*(), p*(), q*(), r*()

7.2 Statistics

  • TODO: parameters are a function of the population distribution
  • TODO: statistics are a function of data.
  • TODO: parameters:population::statistics::data
  • TODO: statistic vs value of a statistic

7.3 Estimators

7.3.1 Properties Bias

\[ \text{bias}\left[\hat{\theta}\right] \triangleq \mathbb{E}\left[\hat{\theta}\right] - \theta \] Variance

\[ \text{var}\left[\hat{\theta}\right] \triangleq \mathbb{E}\left[ \left( \hat{\theta} - \mathbb{E}\left[\hat{\theta}\right] \right)^2 \right] \] Mean Squared Error

\[ \text{MSE}\left[\hat{\theta}\right] \triangleq \mathbb{E}\left[\left(\hat{\theta} - \theta\right)^2\right] = \text{var}\left[\hat{\theta}\right] + \left(\text{Bias}\left[\hat{\theta}\right]\right)^2 \] Consistency

An estimator \(\hat{\theta}_n\) is said to be a consistent estimator of \(\theta\) if, for any positive \(\epsilon\),

\[ \lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} P\left( \left| \hat{\theta}_n - \theta \right| \leq \epsilon\right) =1 \]

or, equivalently,

\[ \lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} P\left( \left| \hat{\theta}_n - \theta \right| > \epsilon\right) =0 \]

We say that \(\hat{\theta}_n\) converges in probability to \(\theta\) and we write \(\hat{\theta}_n \overset P \rightarrow \theta\).

7.3.2 Methods


Given a random sample \(X_1, X_2, \ldots, X_n\) from a population with parameter \(\theta\) and density or mass \(f(x \mid \theta)\), we have:

The Likelihood, \(L(\theta)\),

\[ L(\theta) = f(x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n) = \prod_{i = 1}^{n} f(x_i \mid \theta) \]

The Maximum Likelihood Estimator, \(\hat{\theta}\)

\[ \hat{\theta} = \underset{\theta}{\text{argmax}} \ L(\theta) = \underset{\theta}{\text{argmax}} \ \log L(\theta) \]

  • TODO: Invariance Principle

If \(\hat{\theta}\) is the MLE of \(\theta\) and the function \(h(\theta)\) is continuous, then \(h(\hat{\theta})\) is the MLE of \(h(\theta)\).